Hazelnut remains have been found at archaeological sites from northern Europe to China. It is believed that the tree spread throughout the world during the ice age. The European Tree made its way to North America in the 19th century during the horticultural boom. Then it became an important tree for the production of nuts. But we would be negligent not to mention that hazelnuts are a staple in Turkey, where 60-70% of the world’s hazelnuts are produced.
The Hazel tree is a multi-stemmed deciduous shrub, reaching up to 15 feet and spreading anywhere from 5 to 10 feet. C. maxima, or Lambert trees, reach up to 10 feet in height. For those who have less space, planting a Corylus Americana or Corylus avellana species is best. The leaves of these shrub fruit trees are green and rounded, with jagged edges that are 1 to 3 centimeters wide and 2 to 4 centimeters long. Lambert trees have purple leaves.
Flowers bloom on the tree in very early spring, either in yellow, male cats or in small red female flowers. Cross-pollination between male and female flowers helps to produce nuts in larger volumes. Most varieties are self-fertile and self-pollinated on the same plant. Hazelnuts are formed as a result of the pollination of female flowers and ripen within 40 days after pollination. They are formed in a shell and are ready in early autumn. The roots of these trees are long, branched carpets.
Plant the Walnut at the end of winter, when it is still inactive. Remember that planting a single tree can reduce the number of nuts you harvest in the long term. Planting in the summer heat will shock the roots of trees. Select a site for your hazelnuts that are 15 to 20 meters away. If you plant filberts, you will stay on the wider side of this range. They need a sunny area with well-drained soil. Dig a hole deep enough for the root ball and twice as wide. Water the roots of the tree well. Then plant the roots in the hole, leaving the upper part flush with the ground line.
Return the soil back to the hole, tamping it as you go to remove air pockets. Add two liters of water when the hole is 75% full. Then, top with the remaining soil, mount to the base, leaving a few centimeters between the trunk and the surrounding soil. Stratification of the hill promotes good drainage.
Sun and temperature
Hazelnuts need at least 4 hours of full sun per day. In warmer areas with intense direct sunlight, partial shade can restore too much heat and sun. European hazelnuts are more suitable for colder regions in USDA zones 4 to 8. American hazelnuts can cope with warmer temperatures. Lambert trees thrive in all these rough areas. Moderate weather in the middle of these hardiness zones leads to greater production of female and male flowers, which leads to the production of more nuts. In the colder months, the ideal temperature for this small tree is 50 degrees Fahrenheit.
In the warmer months, they thrive at 85 degrees. They do not like hot and dry conditions for long periods of time. The same applies to frozen areas. Cooler temperatures below the ideal range will finish off female flowers before they can be pollinated. They will throw flowers in situations of high heat, without adequate shelter and humidity. Mulch and cover will keep the soil warm in a cold snap. Sufficient moisture and shade will help grow trees in warmer areas.
Water and humidity
Give hazelnuts a liter of water every few weeks in the morning. Do this with drip irrigation or a spray hose, ideally. Otherwise, gentle irrigation through a watering can at the base of the tree will work well. Increase this amount every two weeks during the fruiting period of growth. If it rains often, there is no need to add additional irrigation. American hazelnuts are drought tolerant.